A project is a set of interrelated activities that provide for the creation of unique products or services in conditions of constraints (time and resource). Each project has its own life cycle.
In the development of the project usually requires several stages or steps. All stages in the aggregate are represented by the project life cycle.
In any project, the following steps can be distinguished:
This command can be independently detailed and broken down into development stages.
Features of the project life cycle
The project life cycles, as already mentioned above, can be built individually, taking into account the specifics of an enterprise. However, they all have some common features, namely:
Over time, it becomes more and more difficult to do.
Waterfall model of the project life cycle
Despite the fact that the life cycles for each individual project or organization may differ significantly, there are some generally accepted models that can serve as a basic basis. One of the most common of the life cycles is the waterfall. It involves the consistent implementation of each planned action and is characterized by the following features: drawing up a clear action plan to achieve the goals; for each action a certain list of tasks is determined, as well as works that are required for execution the introduction of intermediate (control) stages, which will be monitored compliance with the previously developed plan.
Spiral model of the project life cycle
Project life cycles, which are cyclical, are developed according to the spiral model. At each turn, the effectiveness of development is determined in accordance with its cost. This model is different in that in its development one of the key positions is assigned to the risk component, which most often includes the following points:
V model of the project life cycle
This is an improved version of the classic cascade model. Here, at each stage, the current process is monitored in order to make sure that it is possible to move to the next level. In this model, testing begins at the stage of writing requirements, and each subsequent stage has its own level of test coverage.
For each level of testing, a separate test plan is developed, that is, during testing of the current level, specialists also develop the following test strategy. When creating test plans, the expected test results are also determined and the entry and exit criteria for each stage are indicated.
In the V-model, a separate level of testing corresponds to each stage of system design and development. Here, the development process is represented by a downward sequence on the left side of the conventional letter V, and the testing stages are on its right edge. The correspondence of the stages of development and testing is shown by horizontal lines.
What model of project life cycle to choose? The answer to this question depends on:
Summing up, we can draw the following conclusions:
Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the experience of completed projects in order to better understand which model of the project life cycle in which case is best suited for a project, and continue to study the topic of life project projects.
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